Carbon dating lab activity
Ready cleavage, as compared with diamond, and electrical conductivity are consequences of the crystal structure of graphite.Other related properties are softness and lubricity (smoothness, slipperiness).The crystal structure of graphite amounts to a parallel stacking of layers of carbon atoms.
At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, diamond is actually less stable than graphite.
The occurrence of diamonds in iron–magnesium silicates in the volcanic structures called pipes and in iron–nickel and iron sulfide phases in meteorites suggests that they were formed by dissolution of carbon in those compounds and subsequent crystallization from them in the molten state at temperatures and pressures favourable to diamond stability.
The successful synthesis of diamond is based upon this principle.
The crystal structure of graphite is of a kind that permits the formation of many compounds, called lamellar or intercalation compounds, by penetration of molecules or ions.
Graphitic oxide and graphitic fluoride are nonconducting lamellar substances not obtained in true molecular forms that can be reproduced, but their formulas do approximate, respectively, the compositions of carbon dioxide and carbon monofluoride.carbon-13 (1.07 percent); 14 radioactive isotopes are known, of which the longest-lived is carbon-14, which has a half-life of 5,730 ± 40 years.