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was published in a book Cultural Foundations of Mathematics.
It established that the Jesuit priests took trigonometric tables and planetary models from the Kerala mathematicians of the Aryabhata school and exported them to When the Europeans received the Indian calculus, they couldnt understand it properly because the Indian philosophy of mathematics is different from the Western philosophy of mathematics.
It took them about 300 years to fully comprehend its working. Jesuit records show that they sought out these texts as inputs to the Gregorian calendar reform.
This reform was needed to solve the latitude problem of European navigation.
As for vocabulary, its richness is considerable and highly diversified.
And there was strong motivation: Pope Gregory XIII set up a committee to look into modernising the Julian calendar. "Similarly there was a rising need for better navigational methods including keeping accurate time on voyages of exploration and large prizes were offered to mathematicians who specialised in astronomy."But there is also little knowledge of the medieval form of the local language of Kerala, Malayalam, in which some of most seminal texts, such as the Yuktibhasa, from much of the documentation of this remarkable mathematics is written." "For some unfathomable reasons, the standard of evidence required to claim transmission of knowledge from East to West is greater than the standard of evidence required to knowledge from West to East." The Brahmi numerals that have been found in caves and on coins around Mumbai from around the first century AD use horizontal lines for 1 to 3.
We owe the discovery of modern numeration and the elaboration of the very foundations of written calculations to India alone."It is clear how much we owe to this brilliant civilization, and not only in the field of arithmetic; by opening the way to the generalization of the concept of the number, the Indian scholars enabled the rapid development of mathematics and exact sciences.
The discoveries of these men doubtless required much time and imagination, and above all a great ability for abstract fact, the latter is so deeply ingrained in Indian thought and tradition that one meets it in all fields of study, from the most advanced mathematical ideas to disciplines completely unrelated to 'exact sciences.
The squiggles used for 4 to 9, however, are clear ancestors of the numbers we use today.
These symbols were gradually taken up by Arabs and came to Western attention in the 13The translation of De numero Indorum slightly predates the man who is credited with introducing the system to the West. In the comments in his book Liberabaci, written in 1202, he states that " pages 227-228. Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, ..., who died sometime before 850, wrote more than a half dozen astronomical and mathematical works, of which the earliest were probably based on the In this work, based presumably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta, al-Khwarizmi gave so full an account of the Hindu numerals that he probably is responsible for the widespread but false impression that our system of numeration is Arabic in origin. Many Arab authors took up the subjects communicated to them by the Hindus and worked them out in original compositions , commentaries and extracts.
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The Jesuits were equipped with the knowledge of local languages as well as mathematics and astronomy that were required to understand these Indian needed these texts to understand the local customs and how the dates of traditional festivals were fixed by Indians using the local calendar (panchnga).